Components of Airport
Therefore, the main components of airport are
1. Landing Area of Airport
It is the airport components used for landing and takeoff operations of an aircraft. Landing Area includes Runways and taxiways.
2. Terminal Area
The transition of passengers and goods from ground to air takes place in the terminal area. Various methods are used to accommodate and transfer the public and its goods arriving either by ground or by air. The degree of development in the terminal area depends upo9n volume of airport, operations, type of air traffic using airport, number of passengers and the airport employees to be served and the manner in which they are served and accommodated. Terminal area consists of the following parts Terminal building, Apron, Automobile Parking Area, Hangers.
Landing area is the component of airport used for landing and takeoff operations of an aircraft. Landing area includes
It is the most important part of an airport in the form of paved, long and narrow rectangular strip which actually used for landing and takeoff operations. It has turfed (grassy) shoulders on both sides. The width of runway and area of shoulders is called the landing strip. The runway is located in the center of landing strip. The length of landing strip is somewhat larger than the runway strip in order to accommodate the stop way to stop the aircraft in case of abandoned takeoff.
The length and width of runway should be sufficient to accommodate the aircraft which is likely to be served by it. The length of runway should be sufficient to accelerate the aircraft to the point of takeoff and should be enough such that the aircraft clearing the threshold of runway by 15m should be brought to stop with in the 60% of available runway length. The length of runway depends on various meteorological and topographical conditions. Transverse gradients should not be less than 0.5% but should always be greater than 0.5%.
Taxiway is the paved way rigid or flexible which connects runway with loading apron or service and maintenance hangers or with another runway. They are used for the movement of aircraft on the airfields for various purposes such as exit or landing, exit for takeoff etc. The speed of aircraft on taxiway is less than that during taking off or landing speed.
The taxiway should be laid on such a manner to provide the shortest possible path and to prevent the interference of landed aircraft taxying towards loading apron and the taxiing aircraft running towards the runway. The intersection of runway and taxiway should be given proper attention because during turning operation, this part comes under intense loading. If it is weaker then the aero plane may fell down from taxiway. Its longitudinal grade should not be greater than 3% while it s transverse gradient should not be less than 0.5%. It is also provided with a shoulder of 7.5m width paved with bituminous surfacing. The taxiway should be visible from a distance of 300m to a pilot at 3m height from the ground.