Metal Casting Definition, Types and Processes

metal casting


Casting is a method where a solid material is dissolved, heated to suitable temperature (generally treated to change its chemical structure), and is then added into a mold or cavity, which keeps it in a proper form during solidification. As a result, in just one step, complex or simple designs can be created from any material that can be dissolved. The end product can have nearly any setting the designer needs.

  • For any casting procedure, choice of right alloy, sizing, shape, thickness, tolerance, structure, and weight, is really important.
  • Special needs such as, magnetism, deterioration, stress distribution also have an impact on the selection of metal casting process.
  • Opinions of the tooling manufacturer; foundry / machine house requirements, customer's exact product needs, and secondary procedures like paint work, must be addressed before choosing the right metal casting process.

Metal Casting

Metal Casting Processes

There are numerous metal casting processes implemented in the manufacturing of parts. Two main divisions can be identified by the fundamental nature of a mold they use. There is expendable casting and long-lasting mold casting. Expendable molds are utilized for a single metal casting while long-lasting molds are utilized for several. When considering manufacturing procedures, there are pros and cons to both of the processes.

Expendable Mold

  • Can only make one metal casting
  • Made of sand, or other similar materials
  • Binders used to support material hold its shape
  • Mold that metal hardens in should be damaged to wipe out casting
  • More complex geometries are feasible for casting

Long-lasting Mold

  • Can create many metal castings
  • Generally made of metals or often a refractory ceramic
  • It has parts that can close or open, permitting eradication of the casting
  • Have to open mold limitations part designs

Types of Metal Casting

Centrifugal Casting

In this range of processes the melted material is required to disperse into the mold hole because of centrifugal speed. Centrifugal casting procedures can be categorized as true casting processes, which, when the melted material is added into the cavity, pushes it against the cavity walls where it stiffens into a hollow container; semi-centrifugal casting, varies from real centrifugal casting. In this process, the mold cavity is 100% filled with molten material so that the center, which is later on taken out, is exposed to low stress and is where inclusions and air is caught and the centrifuging approach in which melted material is poured into several mold cavities and which move around the core axis and shifted from the core axis and causes the cavities to be stuffed under excessive pressure.

Centrifugal Casting

Continuous Casting

In this process, a flow of molten material equates of a water-cooled hole and creates a continuous rod or strip which is then chopped by a rounded saw. A new technique, generally known as circular continuous casting, entails the water-cooled hole (mold) oscillating as well as rotating at approximately 120 RPM during the casting procedure. Constant casting has an extremely high metal yield, around 98% in comparison with 87% in standard ingot-mold methods, outstanding quality of cast, manipulated grain sizes and the capability of casting unique cross-sectional designs.

Die Casting

Die Casting

Metal Die casting processes force the molten material into the hole of a steel cavity, termed as a die, within extremely high pressure, approximately 1000 – 30,000 psi. Categorization of die casting entails the kinds of machines used, the main types being used are hot-chamber and cold-chamber machines.