The rim or flanges of the wheels are never made flat but they are in the shape of a cone with a slope of about 1 to 20. This is known as coning of wheels. The coning of wheels is manly done to maintain the vehicle in the central position with respect to the track.
The following methods are adopted for reducing wear of rails. Use of Special Alloy Steel, Good Maintenance of Track, Reduction of Expansion Gap. At places where, wear of rail is considerable, special alloy steel rails are used.
Prior to survey the available maps of proposed area are studied. This helps in fixing suitable alignment facilitate various surveys work. The various engineering surveys which are carried out for the choice of route of a new railway line can broadly be divided in to three categories Reconnaissance Survey, Preliminary Survey and Location Survey
A new railway line is required for the following purposes: Strategic consideration, Linking of trade center, Connection of port to interior country, Shortening existing route, Laying a branch line, Factors Influencing the Proposed Railway Track is Cost, Safety, Speed and Least Distance.
Creep is not constant over a given period, it is not continue in one direction or at uniform rate. Both the rails of the track may creep in same direction, perhaps both the rails reverse the direction of creep or one rail creep in opposite direction to that of other. In other words, the direction and magnitude of creep cannot be predicted.
There are two methods used for the correction of creep. These are Pulling back Method and Use of Creep Anchors / Anti Creepers. There are two methods used for the correction of creep. These are Pulling back Method & Use of Creep Anchors / Anti Creepers. In pulling back method the effects of creep are observed during ordinary maintenance of track.
Ballast is the foundation of railway track and provide just below the sleepers. The loads from the wheels of trains ultimately come on the ballast through rails and sleepers. Some of the important functions of ballast are: To provide firm and level bed for the sleepers to rest on, To allow for maintaining correct track level without disturbing the rail road
The following materials for Railway Ballast used on the railway track. Broken Stone, Gravel, Cinders / Ashes, Sand, Kankar, Moorum, Brick Ballast, Selected Earth. Broken stone is one of the best materials for railway ballst to be used on the railway tracks. Almost all the important railway tracks are provided with broken stone.
Sometimes it becomes unavoidable to lay tracks on a very poor (or undesirable) soil. In such cases it becomes necessary to improve and strengthen the nature of soil by some suitable methods. under such conditions Following methods are used 1. Layer of Moorum 2. Cement Grouting 3. Sand Piles 4. Use of Chemicals
A railway station is defined as any place on a railway line where traffic is booked and dealt with and where an authority to proceed is given to the trains. Drainage. The proposed site should be on a fairly leveled ground and it should be well drained. There should be plentiful supply for water at the site of station.