It is the system and infrastructure of collecting, treating and disposal of sewage. There are three types of sewerage systems. Separate System, Partially Separated System & Combined System. Separate Sewerage System.
Manholes are masonry or RCC chambers constructed at suitable intervals along the sewer lines for providing access into them. They are used to carry out inspection, cleaning and removing obstruction in the sewer line.
It is a component of permanent way laid transversely under the rails and performing the following functions. 1. To support the rails firmly and evenly 2. To maintain the gauge of the back correctly
The number of railway sleepers required to be placed under the track per rail length is called as its sleepers density. It is generally given by the formula railway sleeper Density = n + x where n = length of one rail in yards and x = excess number of sleepers
Depending upon the position in a railway track, sleepers may be classified as: 1.Longitudinal Sleepers the early form of sleepers which are not commonly used nowadays.
Untreated railway sleepers are prone to attack by decay and vermin. The life of untreated wooden sleepers is thus very less. The life of untreated sleepers can be prolonged considerably treatment.
Creep is defined as the longitudinal movement of the rails in the track in the direction of motion of locomotives. Creep is common to all railways and its value varies from almost nothing to about 6 inches or 16cm.
Sanitary Engineering is the ranch of public health engineering dealing with collection, conveyance, treatment and disposal of wastes, Sewage is the waster or foul water of the community conveyed by sewer
Sewage treatment process is the combination of physical and biological process with chemical process occasionally applied additionally to bring the sewage to such a quality that it is not harmful to human health and environment.
It consists of removal of floating material (like dead animals, tree branches, papers, plastics, wood pieces, vegetables peels etc) and also the heavy settleable inorganic solids (grit etc). Preliminary treatment includes: Screening, Comminutors, Grit Removal, Skimming Tank etc