The laying of sewer pipe consist of the following steps: 1. Locate the positions of the manhole on the ground along the longitudinal section of the sewer line. The laying of sewage pipe consist of the following steps. Locate the positions of the manhole on the ground along the longitudinal section of the sewer line.
The sewers after being laid and jointed are tested for watertight joints and also for correct straight alignment as described below 1. Test for Leakage 2. Test for Straightness of Alignment and Obstruction
Types of sewer like Asbestos Cement (AC) Sewers are manufactured from a mixture of cement and asbestos fiber. Asbestos Cement (AC) Sewers are suitable for carrying domestic sanitary sewage. Asbestos cement sewer is best as vertical pipe for carrying sullage from upper floors of multistory buildings (in two pipe system of plumbing).
Due to the importance of airport, airport engineering has been introduced as a measure subject. It involves the design and construction of various facilities of an airport which are necessary for its efficient working.Therefore, the main components of an airport are 1. Landing Area of Airport 2. Terminal Area.
Landing area is the component of airport used for landing and takeoff operations of an aircraft. Landing area includes Runways & Taxiways. Runway is the most important part of an airport in the form of paved, long and narrow rectangular strip which actually used for landing and takeoff operations
Definition of Dam is as an obstruction constructed across a stream or river. At the back of this barrier water is collected forming a pool. The side on which water is collected is called upstream side and the other side of the barrier is called downstream side. The pool of water which is formed upstream is called a Reservoir.
Dams can be classified in various ways depending upon the purpose of classification, Classification by Material, Use and Hydraulic Design
Following are the types of Dams Earth Dams, Rock fill Dams, Solid Masonry Gravity Dams, Steel Dams, Timber Dams, Arch Dams, Storage Dams. Earth Dams are constructed of soil pounded and compacted into solid mass. These are constructed in areas where the foundation
Various factors which must be thoroughly considered before selecting one particular type of dam are, Topography,Geology and Foundation, Conditions, Availability of materials, Spillway size and location,Earthquake zone, Height of the Dam
The selection of Dam site for constructing a dam should b governed by the following factors. Suitable foundation must be available. For economy, the length of the dam should be as small as possible